SBN: Dr. White, DPM

July 29th, 2010

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High Alert

Antibiotics in the clinical pipeline in 2011

May 22nd, 2011

Butler MS et al. – The emergence of multi–drug–resistant bacteria and the lack of new antibiotics in the antibiotic drug development pipeline, especially those with new modes of action, is a major health concern. read more

Researchers identify 27 viruses that can persist in semen

September 15th, 2017

Salam AP, Horby PW. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;doi:10.3201/eid2311.171049.

A recent analysis revealed that 27 viruses from a wide range of virus families may persist in human semen.
Alex P. Salam, MBChB, MSc , clinician and clinical researcher with the United Kingdom Public Health Rapid Support Team, and Peter W. Horby, MBBS, PhD, professor of emerging infectious diseases and global health at the University of Oxford, said their findings underscore the need for additional research to determine whether these viruses remain viable in semen and for how long.
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“The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally nonsexually transmitted viruses,” they wrote in Emerging Infectious Diseases. “The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.”
According to the researchers, blood-testes/deferens/epididymis barriers are “imperfect” in preventing viruses in blood from crossing into the male reproductive tract. The viruses are able to survive within testes because the immune response is restricted to enable survival of sperm.
To further investigate the persistence of viruses in semen, the researchers performed a large PubMed search limited to studies on viruses capable of causing viremia. They identified studies of 27 viruses that were detected in human semen, many of which lacked data on sexual transmission. Viruses that were found in semen included adenoviruses; transfusion-transmitted virus; Lassa fever virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Ebola virus; Marburg virus; GB virus C; hepatitis B and C viruses; Zika virus; cytomegalovirus; Epstein Barr virus; human herpes viruses 6, 7 and 8; human simplex viruses 1 and 2; varicella zoster virus; mumps virus; adeno-associated virus; BK virus; JC virus; simian virus 40; HIV; human T-cell lymphoma virus 1; simian foamy virus; and chikungunya virus.
“These 27 viruses come from diverse families, suggesting that the presence of many viruses in semen is unlikely to be exclusively dependent on specific or conserved viral epitopes, [the] ability of virus to replicate within the male reproductive tract, or common mechanisms of immune evasion,” the researchers wrote. “Other factors that may also influence whether viruses exist in semen are level of viremia, inflammatory mediators (altering blood-barrier permeability), systemic immunosuppression, male reproductive tract immune responses, presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and the virus structural stability.”
Several other viruses were detected in human testes and may also be detectable in semen, including influenza virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, phlebotomus fever virus, coxsackie B virus, echovirus, dengue virus, systemic acute respiratory syndrome virus, parvovirus, smallpox virus, vaccinia virus and rubella virus, according to the researchers.
“Given these findings, the following questions need to be addressed: which viruses are shed and remain viable in semen, for how long, and at what concentrations? The answers to these questions have implications for risks for sexual transmission and, therefore, embryonic infection, congenital disease, miscarriage, and effects on epidemiologic transmission models,” the researchers wrote. – by Stephanie Viguers
Disclosure: Infectious Disease News was unable to confirm relevant financial disclosures at the time of publication.
 

Telavancin shows superior activity to vancomycin with multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a range of in vitro biofilm models

May 21st, 2013

Smith K et al. – The activity of telavancin was compared with vancomycin against methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in planktonic culture and biofilms grown using a range of in vitro models. Despite differences between the models evaluated, telavancin typically demonstrated improved efficacy over vancomycin, indicating the potential value of the agent in the treatment of biofilm–mediated infections caused by S. aureus, especially multidrug–resistant isolates.

European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 05/10/2013 Clinical Article

Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxin GH Promotes Inflammation

September 5th, 2012

Malachowa N et al. – The findings indicate that S. aureus leukotoxins enhance the host inflammatory response and influence the outcome of infection. read more

Acquisition of spores on gloved hands after contact with the skin of patients with Clostridium difficile infection and with environmental surfaces in their rooms.

September 5th, 2012

Guerrero DM, Nerandzic MM, Jury LA, Jinno S, Chang S, Donskey CJ.
Source University Hospitals of Cleveland Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. read more

How Staphylococcus aureus Breaches Our Skin to Cause Infection

June 14th, 2012

Otto M – Recent extensive research on USA300 virulence factors identified a series of molecular determinants that affect the capacity of this clone to cause abscess formation in experimental models. read more

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